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 ARTtalk  Each month you’ll find informative articles that deal with a variety of subjects such as artists and art history, current events and art world news, schools, competitions and workshops, and a Kids?Korner. Subjects vary each month. art supplies, airbrushing, drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, matting and framing, arts and crafts, and more. These explain various techniques—how to work and paint with artist's watercolor on paper, oils or acrylics on artist canvas; how to use pastels, pencils or  pen and ink; how to work with different surfaces grounds; how to paint with the airbrush and compatible materials; the use of projectors and light boxes in your work and more. You’ll also find artists information on magazines, art books. (Established 1990)

ARTtalk Cybercopy - posted July 1, 2014
(ARTtalk’s latest cybercopy is posted on the 1st of every month.)

de Young Museum - Legion of Honor - Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
Schiava Turca

Parmigianino Opening Events

Saturday, July 26, 2014
Legion of Honor

Chamber Music, noon–1:30 pm
Guest Curator Lecture, 2 pm
Celebrate of the opening of The Poetry of Parmigianino’s “Schiava Turca” at these special events!  The enrapturing portrait of a young woman known as Schiava Turca crosses the Atlantic for the first time and will have its exclusive West Coast presentation at the Legion of Honor. We're kicking off this exciting debut with a special performance by operatic tenor Claudio Santome, who specializes in the bel canto repertoire, including Mozart, Donizetti, Verdi, and Puccini, accompanied by César Cancino. And don’t miss a rare opportunity to learn more about the enigmatic Schiava Turca in a guest lecture by Aimee Ng, Research Associate at The Frick Collection and Lecturer in the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University. Learn more.
Intimate Impressionism

Final Weeks of Intimate Impressionism
Through August 3

Don’t miss your chance to view Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works by masters Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, and more! Intimate Impressionism from the National Gallery of Art provides a rare opportunity to see 70 landscapes, seascapes, still lifes, interiors, and portraits that illuminate fleeting moments and beloved places. Get tickets, and check out our docent tours every Sunday until the exhibition closes. Learn more

¡La Milonga del Modernismo!

Celebrate the exhibition Modernism from the National Gallery of Art with Argentine tango! Join us for Friday Nights at the de Young on July 18 for the annual tango party hosted by TangoCalifia, featuring a guest appearance by the renowned Trio Garufa. Come dance, watch, and enjoy! Learn more.

Grab a drink and get a docent-led tour of Modernism! Take advantage of the Modernism Tour Package happening every Friday night in August.


Fair Trade Bazaar

Fair Trade Bazaar
July 25 & 26

A world of art awaits you at the Fourth Annual Fair Trade Bazaar at the de Young, showcasing products from global artisans. Shop for unique items including jewelry, textiles, native handcrafts, and decorative accessories reflecting the many cultures represented in the Museums' collections. Visit our blog for interviews with some of this year’s vendors! Members receive a 10% discount. Learn more.
Joshua Margolis

Monsters and Robots

Be a part of the July Artist-in-Residence’s creative process at the de Young! Draw a robot or monster with materials provided in the Kimball Education Gallery this month, and artist Joshua Margolis may make it into a three-dimensional ceramic sculpture. Your drawings can be as detailed or as simple as you choose, and you are welcome to spend as much time as you like on your creation. Learn more.



July 16, 2014

Stay Connected

Get social with the de Young

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Read the FAMSF Blog


At the de Young

Through September 7
Through October 12
Through January 4
Through January 4
Through January 11

At the Legion of Honor

FINAL WEEKS! Through August 3
Through September 7
JUST OPENED! Through January 4
COMING SOON! Opens July 26

Programs & Events

At the de Young

Wednesdays–Sundays, 1–5 pm, plus Fridays 6–8:45 pm except July 4
Friday, July 18, 6–8:45 pm
Saturday, July 19, 10–11:30 am & 12:30–2 pm
Saturday, July 19, 2:15 pm
July 22–25, 9 am–4 pm 
Thursday, July 24, 1–2 pm
Friday, July 25 & 26, 8:30 am–9:30 pm
Friday, July 25, 6–8:45 pm
Saturday, July 26, 10–11:30 am & 12:30–2 pm
Sunday, July 27, 1–2 pm

At the Legion of Honor

Saturdays & Sundays, 4 pm
Saturday, July 19, 11:30 am–12:30 pm
Sunday, July 20, 2–3 pm
Saturday, July 26, noon
Saturday, July 26, 2 pm
Sunday, July 27, 1 pm

Museum Hours

9:30 am-5:15 pm

Fridays at the de Young
(through November 29)
9:30 am-8:45 pm

Closed Mondays






Opening Set—On July 4th The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA, will celebrate the grand opening of the new Visitor Center, renovated Museum Building and Manton Research Center and the redesigned 140-acre campus.  Three inaugural special exhibitions debuting are Make It New:  Abstract Painting from the National Gallery of Art, 1950-1975, Cast for Eternity:  Ancient Ritual Bronzes from the Shanghai Museum and Raw Color:  The Circles of David Smith.

—Awards Announced—Arts Mid-Hudson, Poughkeepsie, NY, has announced the recipients of the 2nd Annual Ulster County Executive’s Arts Awards:  Arts Organization, Center for Photography at Woodstock; Business/Corp., Chronogram; Arts in Education, Linda Gillette; Individual Artist, Garry Kvistad; Art in Public Places, O+ Festival; and Special Citation, Benjamin Wigfall.

—Take a Seat—Weighing in at almost 20,000 lbs., seven solid bench-like sculptures by artist Tom Joyce have been permanently installed on the northeast side of the Museum of Arts and Design’s front entrance (NYC).  The site-specific, stainless steel forgings were crafted from industrial remnants retrieved from Scot Forge, an industrial forging facility outside Chicago, where approximately 250 million pounds of iron, copper and aluminum alloy are forged monthly and shaped by highly skilled, industrial blacksmiths.

Settlement Reached—The Landmarks Conservancy (NYC) has reached a settlement with the owner of the Seagram Building that will end a legal battle and place the famed Picasso Curtain in a new home at The New York Historical Society.  A former owner of the building had given the 1919 artwork to the Conservancy in 2005 as a “gift to the City” with the caveat that they maintain it in place within the Four Seasons Restaurant where it has hung since the restaurant opened in 1959.  The heavy canvas curtain is brittle and measures 20 ft. x 20 ft., and a conservator is being selected.

—NEA News—The U. S. Senate has voted to confirm Jane Chu as the 11th chairman of the NEA.  She has served as acting chairman since Dec. 2012. — The 5th annual Blue Star Museums program has been launched through Labor Day.  More than 2,000 museums across America offer free admission to the nation’s service members and their families.  This provides an opportunity to enjoy the nation’s cultural heritage or learn more about their new communities after completing a military move.  See participating museums at And we thank military personnel and their families, as well,  for their service and sacrifice.

Global Call for Entries — The Guggenheim Foundation has formally called for entries to begin its open international architectural competition for the design of a proposed museum in Helsinki. The two-stage competition is expected to draw submissions from a wide range of firms and individuals from and around the world.  Stage One submissions are due Sept. 10.

—Drawing Installed — Over a period of 4 weeks, 5 drafters have prepared the 10 geometric figures set within squares that comprise Sol LeWitt’s 1982 Wall Drawing #370.  On view at the Metropolitan Museum, NYC, through Sept. 7, 2015, it will then be painted over. Also on display is LeWitt’s Composite Series (1970), a group of 5 silkscreens that are among the first abstract prints made by the artist.



3rd Annual Hudson Valley Chalk Festival—Upper Parking Lot, Water Street Market, New Paltz, NY—July 18-20. Twenty-one professional artists from all around the U.S. will participate and local artists will also have an opportunity.  Live music, face painting, open chalking area and more fun activities are planned.  See

Target First Saturday—Brooklyn Museum (NY), July 5—The one millionth visitor is welcomed and summer is celebrated with outdoor activities, music and films.  Some events are ticketed.  Info:

Dia:Beacon Community Free Day, July 12. Residents of Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster and Westchester Counties (NY) are invited free of charge.  Engaging programs suitable for a broad audience are offered throughout the day.


Jazz in the Garden, National Gallery of Art, D.C.  The Gallery’s beloved summer tradition of jazz concerts in the Sculpture Garden celebrates its 14th season; every Friday evening (thru Aug. 29) from 5-8:30 p.m.

Community Clay Day, Art Centro, Poughkeepsie, NY.  Get your hands on some clay on the third Friday/Saturday of each month.  Adults/children.  Info:!community-clay-day/c1mxg.

13th Berkshire Arts Festival, Ski Butternut in Great Barrington, VT, July 4-6.  Enjoy works by 175 artists, live music, food and workshops for the kids.






Honey, I Twisted Through More Damn Traffic

Today by Ed Ruscha, next to the High Line at W. 22nd St., NYC, thru May 2015. The legendary artist presents his first public commission in NYC, a large-scale mural that combines his interests in architecture, vernacular language and public space.

Master, Mentor, Master:  Thomas Cole & Frederic Church, Thomas Cole National Historic Site, Catskill, NY, thru Nov. 2Landscape masterpieces by Church and Cole focus on early artworks by Church as well as later works that explore one of the most important teacher-student relationships in the history of American

art and speak to a deep and lifelong connection between two painters.

Keeping the Dream Alive, Wallace Center, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park, NY, thru Aug. 1. In collaboration with the Dreamrocket Project, the Eleanor Roosevelt Val-Kill Partnership is delighted to sponsor over 100 student group artworks from around the country that interpret her commitment to human rights during the 50th anniversary year of the passage of the Civil Rights Act.



Pattern and Rhythm Through the Lens, Art League of Long Island, Dix Hills, NY, Sept. 28—Nov. 2.  Open to artists residing in NJ, CT and NY, including L.I., 18 years and older.  Photographers are asked to explore the patterns and rhythms of the world around them.  Deadline:  Aug. 19

Score the Fountain, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Aug. 14.  Musicians and producers of all genres are asked to create an original score to accompany the Jane and David Walentas Fountain in front of the Museum.  Email submissions (via soundcloud or yousendit)  to with the subject line “Score the Fountain” by July 30.

20th Annual Nellie Allen Smith Juried Pottery Competition, Cape Fear Studios, Fayetteville, NC, Oct. 24-Nov. 20.  Open to all potters 18 years and older.  A max of two original works in clay completed in the last two years, either functional or nonfunctional, may be submitted.  Deadline:  Aug. 22

Thursdays with the Figure, Barrett Art Center, Poughkeepsie, NY, 10 a.m.-3 p.m.  Work with an experienced model as you draw, paint (water-based), sculpt, do collage or use another medium of your choice.  Bring your materials and creativity.  No reservation

required.  Fee.

The Original Art is an annual exhibit at the Society of Illustrators, NYC, that showcases illustrations from the year’s best children’s books published in the U.S.  Publishers, illustrators, agents and authors may submit; picture books and other illustrated books whose prime market is children 12 years and younger will be considered.  Deadline: July 18










Working with Clay

Working in clay is one of the most interesting and expressive things an artist can do. There is a universal feeling of making "something" from what appears to be "nothing," and it is great to have successes with that type of creative process. Clay is, however, far from "nothing." It is a very precise combination of materials that when joined together with moisture is a wonderfully plastic and malleable material.

Clay formulas vary greatly in the degree of smoothness or texture they possess. Porcelain, for instance, has nearly no grit within the formula, so the surface will be smooth and sleek for glazes. It is also fired to the highest temperatures to achieve vitrification. Porcelain clay is usually a very light color of gray or pure white once fired.

Earthenware clay is the other extreme. It is more porous, has much more texture and glazes are less fluid on the earthenware surface. Colors range from tans and yellows to rich browns and reds. It is easier to manipulate than porcelain but not as smooth or "polished" in appearance.

Between these two extremes is stoneware clay, the most popular. The composition of stoneware offers a more rigid and stronger base than that of earthenware but not as "tight" a surface as porcelain.

All three clays can be shaped/formed in the same way - hand built, slip cast or thrown on the potter's wheel. In liquid form (slip), all can be cast into molds for rapid and exact duplication of shapes and forms. Of all choices of manipulation, hand building is the method used most by potters who want to offer creative and expressive forms for sale. Throwing on the potter's wheel is fun and is a skill that can be worthwhile to learn. For the creation of large forms the potter's wheel is very valuable. However, most potters agree that once the mechanics of throwing are learned, it is far less rewarding than the ability to create one-off items with hand building.

As in clay bodies, glaze formulas are a very precise measurement of components. Some of the elements in a glaze help hold it on the clay body. Some make glazes flow and intermix with the colorants. Some of the colorants can react with the other components to create an ever-changing array of glaze "activity." Potters want to have a regiment of glazes that they can depend on and that will perform well and as expected. That final step is vital to the success of any clay artisan.

Methods of glaze application are as varied as there are potters. The order in which multiple glazes are applied can affect the result in new and unexpected ways. That is not a bad thing. New can be good. Some colorants react to a minor change in glaze composition to give a huge range of colors with a very slight change in formula. For those who are less interested in experimentation or study, there are hundreds of very controlled and beautiful glazes where all that is required is to open a jar and apply the glaze. Easy can be good, too!

One can brush on glazes, singly or in layers. Designs can be painted over a base glaze to create a completely new look. Dipping is a choice of many clay artisans because in one dunk you cover the entire surface. The base of a piece of pottery must be clear of glaze or it will stick to the kiln shelf. If you dunk, you either have to put on a wax-type resist to avoid the glaze coating or wash off the base. Airbrushing glazes is a very fast application method, and if applied one over another, you can create totally unique colors and textures. Even in the method of application, there are dozens of choices, so change can be a vital part of the learning process with clay and glazes.

Carving through glazes to create designs that will show the original color of the clay is also popular. Any tool can be used that will render an area large enough to detect once the glaze is fired. Runny glazes are obviously not a good choice if you want your carving to show.

Two methods of firing clay are practical for most potters:  electric or gas firing. Electric is easiest but is a bit limiting because of the oxygen-rich environment. Gas firing uses this lack of oxygen to create red glazes with copper based glazes but also fires any glaze well. Gas draws oxygen from the clay body, through the glaze and transforms copper from green to red. Pretty amazing, but if reds are your passion you can get them with electric firing by purchasing ready-made glazes in red. Occasionally you will find an artist who does wood firing. That is a wild and interesting way to fire clay but not very practical for the average potter. The kilns are huge and massive amounts of wood are needed.

This article barely scratches (carves!) the surface of clays and glazes, but once an artisan becomes interested in the practices, designing and—dare we say—chemistry of pottery, it is one of the most engaging and creative ways to express one's artistic abilities. If you get an opportunity to try any part of the clay experience - take it!  Visit for all your material/equipment needs from clay to kilns.


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Relief Printing--History and Technique


Relief printing is defined as a printing process by which a carved or otherwise created three-dimensional master is used to make duplicates of an image. Woodblock, linocuts and wood engraving are all relief print methods.

In woodblock printmaking, the parts of the block which are not to appear on the print are removed from the block by cutting them away with a knife or other tool. For printing, the raised parts of the block are inked and the paper is pressed on it by hand or by a press.

Woodblock printing is one of the oldest printmaking techniques. Its origin is linked to the creation of cutting or shaping stamps and seals but the most important development for the creation of woodblock prints was the development of paper. Around A.D. 105 in China, the first printmaking techniques came to be. Stone rubbings that were inked and rubbed with dampened paper have been documented.

These stone rubbings led to the development of more controlled media, that of wood blocks. China is documented as having a completed book created with woodblock prints that has been dated 868, the primary use for which was Buddhist teachings. Japan also had prints dating in the 770’s which were printed in an edition of one million, but the plate composition is unknown.

In Europe woodblock printmaking came much later. Printing on fabric with wooden stencils was common for centuries, but woodblock printing on paper began with paper production, somewhere around 1390.

Early European prints were single sheets, used mostly for religious images. They were hand printed and often hand colored, usually using stencils so that the painting would remain clearly visible. These prints started with carved lines, and it wasn’t until 1400 that cutting wide areas emerged.

With the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440, much about printing methods began to change. Printed word began to separate from imagery and the focus became the print rather than the images.

In the 17th century, engraving and etching became the most commonly used printmaking methods and replaced large-scale woodblock printing. Economics changed again with the invention of lithography and later photography, and woodcuts became a medium of fine art. Japan’s woodblock prints of this era are some of the most coveted originals available.

Cherry and pear wood make excellent choices for woodcut masters. They are hard and hold edges very well, but are not easily found. When faced with the remaining choices, artists often find themselves experimenting with a variety of woods. One that is easy to find and works very well is a solid core, room-finished plywood. It is usually about one-inch thick and very smooth on both sides. The hard, solid core allows deeper cuts and very strong relief. Tools you might choose to carve with include gouges and stencil knives, and sometimes small grinders help to remove large areas. The edges of important shapes should be cut with very sharp blades so that they are distinct.

The same tools and inking methods can be used to create linoleum prints. Carving can be done with almost any sharp tool because the lino surface is soft. As in the case of carving wood blocks, gouges can remove large areas and create interesting textures. The linoleum that is preferred is called battleship linoleum and is the actual floor covering used on battleship floors for decades. It is smooth, about ¼-inch thick, and has a heavy jute backing for stability. When slightly warmed, it makes the carving process even easier.

Inks are rolled on with brayers for even distribution. Slightly moistened paper is used to pick up the images and all your detail can be transferred to the sheets easily, even with hand transfer. A smooth rounded tool such as the bowl of a spoon makes pickup of ink very simple. Use even pressure and small circular patterns and the ink will be transferred onto the paper.

Wood engraving is actually very similar to woodcuts, but is completed with more refined tools. The images, more refined and very detailed, are created with the use of finely textured wood grain planks. The grain must be very tight to hold the fine detail.

Photoengraving differs from other engraving because it is the melding of two very different media. Photographic images are used to create a metal plate that has very slight "highs" and "lows." The major subjects are the high areas, while the background or negative areas are the lows. It is the taller areas of the metal plate that are printed with the introduction of ink to the plate. They are known for their elegant, almost dreamy appearance, unlike other forms of etching that are sharp and highly detailed.

Relief printing can be done with very simple and inexpensive materials. Wax blocks and even Styrofoam can be carved and indented to create a relief that can be printed. Nothing could be more fun and interesting as printmaking with found materials that yield interesting and unique results. So there is no reason to avoid printmaking because of the materials or the methods.

Printmaking is fun, easy and can be very rewarding. Experiment with a variety of materials and methods. You might find it is perfect for you and the images you want to create.



Painting on a Grand Scale

When artists gravitate towards large scale works, they face some interesting challenges along with the actual creative process. How art is created ?on a grand scale ?is different from small artworks. Every aspect of the act of mural painting and other large scale artwork has considerations that make it fun and stimulating - well worth those deliberations.

From the very ground onto which the artist places sketch lines, brushes of paint and blended colors, large scale nudges the artist into new realms of production. In order to paint large scale, the preferred ground ?canvas of some sort ?must be acquired in an appropriate size. The content of the canvas and its weight are both vital considerations when the painted surface is gigantic.

Widths/lengths and fiber content of canvas-type grounds vary greatly, but there are sizes as large as 12 feet wide. More commonly, large scale works are completed on canvas of 60? 72? or 84?widths. Roll length purchases are necessary and can vary by manufacturer ?from 6 feet to 25 yards.

But, after width and length, the fiber content may be the single most important element of the painting. As you would expect, there is cotton fiber in a variety of weights, but there is also linen, jute, cotton/linen blends polyester (all synthetic) and cotton/poly blends and all can be found primed and unprimed. The weight and texture of the canvas will have an important bearing on the finished artwork, and most artists match their style with the texture and surface of their ground. Choices abound!

Rather than traditionally sized tubes of paint, most muralists/large scale painters use jars, tubs ?even gallons of artists?colors. Most manufacturers of paint offer a wide selection in larger quantities. Selection of textures in those containers is also sometimes available. Thicker paint means more pigment for application and working into large spaces.

Application tools include brushes for sure, but those used are much larger in size. Consider when doing any work—if the scale were huge, you would want to use larger brushes. And, additionally, rollers (like those used for wall painting) and trowels are also used in larger scale works ?tools that would be difficult to use small scale become a necessity for bigger works. Trowels, scrapers, and tools not often associated with “painterly?applications are used by muralists and accomplish the job they want. Painting pads and hand “mops?for decorative surfacing of walls can come in very handy on larger scale artworks.

Easels play a big part in big works. Studio easels in both wood and metal often accept works as large as 5-8 feet tall. They help hold the work at the proper level ?that at which it will be viewed ?so the artist is always aware of the scope, perspective and dynamics of his/her work. Some artists who do large scale work cover a wall with plywood and then staple or tack their canvas to that surface at the proper level for work and viewing. Easels and wall attachments ?whatever they might be ?help artists by allowing them to step back and take in the “big picture.?For large stretched canvas, wall mounted easels are great. They can accommodate works of around 100 inches in height. They are sturdy, help hold the stretched canvas firmly and adjust to all points up to around 100 inches.

And lastly some artists employ the use of airbrush to do a lot of the design layout and fill-in on large works. Texturing with an airbrush can be accomplished by painting through screening, metal mesh, decorative pierced metal sheeting and many more items. Airbrush gives the type of color gradation almost impossible to achieve in any other way. Mists of tone-on-tone and the softness achieved is a huge asset to some muralists.

In review, large scale artworks bring new thought processes to ponder and hurdles to overcome.  But, isn’t that what contributes to making art so enjoyable and rewarding—to accept the intellectual stimulation of such works and to succeed.



Printmaking Techniques & Materials

 Printmaking is an enjoyable expression and is accompanied by some terms that often seem a bit difficult to understand. So, here some of the common terms and techniques will be explained. The scope of printmaking is huge and can be enjoyed by nearly any age group. Some of the materials used are found around the home, while others must be purchased from art material dealers
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No matter the level of your involvement with printmaking, it is sure to be exciting. In some techniques, duplication of results is nearly impossible, which seems a bit contradictory to the basic term: printmaking. Let’s take, for our first example, the most direct and simple of prints…monoprints.

A monoprint (mono meaning one) is created by applying ink or paint to a hard flat surface (plate), pressing paper against the plate and lifting the paper from the plate. The resulting print is one-of-a-kind, since ink or paint would be nearly impossible to set in the same place time after time. Simple doesn’t mean uninteresting, and this is a great technique for any artist.

Collagraph, a very simple form of printmaking, is a print created from a plate (Masonite, mat board, chip board, etc.) that has natural and/or found objects with texture glued to it. The surface of the plate is sealed and, when dry, is inked on the textured plate, excess removed and a paper placed on top. Downward pressure (using a press or hand roller) presses the paper and ink together and the images are transferred (in reverse) to the paper. Again, the simplicity of collagraph prints makes them easy for everyone to try. Many, but not unlimited, prints can be made from a master collagraph plate.

Wood block (woodcut) printing advances in difficulty because the artist uses special gouges and carving tools to create a dimensional image in a wood block. The high surfaces of the wood block are inked, paper is pressed against the inked areas and the resulting image is a woodblock print. Surfaces other than wood can be used; linoleum, wax, and rubber are a few that are a bit easier to carve. Early wood block designs were used for fabric embellishment and those blocks endure as collectables.

Reduction prints are created with care by print artists who desire more color and texture in their work. Each color is printed individually on the ever-decreasing wood block. Working from back to front colorwise, the artist reduces the wood block with every color, printing that part of the plate that will reflect a specific color, and then removing more mass to print the next color. When finished, the only areas that remain on the block are those representing the very last color.

Drypoint etching is more involved because it starts with a metal plate. The plate is scribed (scratched) by the artist to record a subject. Ink is rubbed into the slight toothy grooves created by the scribing. Paper is then put on the plate, pressed and the resulting print is pulled away from the plate. For all but the tiniest of printed images, a printing press is invaluable in the process. Strong definition and evenness is difficult with hand pressing methods. Many prints can be made from the original plate. Etching can be taken yet another step by using acid to enlarge and remove areas of the metal surface.

Intaglio prints are made from a metal base into which designs have been created. This is often done with harsh chemicals, the metal dissolving where there are scribed or etched lines that have been made through a protective covering. Because of the chemical contact (acids), this level of printmaking is considered advanced and should be done under supervision and instruction. Many prints can be made from the original plate. Ink is rubbed into the low areas, paper is pressed to the surface and a print is created.

Finally, following is a simple explanation of some terms associated with printmaking:

brayer - a hard rubber roller on a handle used to transfer ink to the plate.

plate ?a surface on which an image is formed, usually metal.

baren - a circular padded tool used to rub against the back of paper to obtain an image from a master.

hard ground -an acid-resistant material applied to an etching plate through which you scribe to create a design.

mordant - an acid or other corrosive substance used to “bite?into a metal plate to create an image on that plate.

gouge ?a V- or U-shaped tool for cutting a wood or linoleum block.



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