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Monthly Issue of ARTtalk Local Beacon, N.Y.
ARTtalk Each month you’ll
find informative articles that deal with a variety of subjects such as
artists and art history, current events and art world news, schools,
competitions and workshops, and a Kids?Korner. Subjects vary each month.
art supplies, airbrushing, drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture,
ceramics, matting and framing, arts and crafts, and more. These explain
various techniques—how to work and paint with artist's watercolor on
paper, oils or acrylics on artist canvas; how to use pastels, pencils or
pen and ink; how to work with different surfaces grounds; how to paint
with the airbrush and compatible materials; the use of projectors and
light boxes in your work and more. You’ll also find artists information on
magazines, art books. (Established 1990)
ARTtalk Cybercopy - posted February 1, 2015
(ARTtalk’s latest cybercopy is posted on
the 1st of every month.)
film by Mike Leigh and starring Timothy Spall,
Mr. Turner explores the
last quarter century of the life of the great British painter J. M.
W. Turner (1775-(1851). The film has received four Academy Award
New Grant Available—A
new grant initiative created in partnership by the NEA and the
National Park Service celebrates the intersections between the two
in honor of the NEA’s 50th anniversary in 2015 and the National Park
Service’s centennial in 2016. “Imagine Your Parks” will provide $1
million in funding through the NEA Art Works grant category.
Guidelines are available at arts.gov.
Frosty on View—On
view thru Feb. 28 at the Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, NY, in
the Glass Market is their 6-ft. tall snowman and snowwoman and their
3-ft. tall snowchild made by Hot Glass Show glassmaker George
Kennard and team. Watch them on YouTube.
little more than a year after the Pérez Art
Museum Miami opened its new facility, Director Thom Collins is
leaving to head Philadelphia’s Barnes Foundation. In its opening
year the museum exceeded its key attendance and membership goals,
with more than 300,000 visitors. The new director will help develop
a five-year strategic plan.
Go List 2015 of the top 25 places to visit
includes the Hudson Valley and the Catskills as “can’t miss” places
to go. Rhinebeck, Hudson and Tarrytown, Dia:Beacon, Storm King,
Walkway Over the Hudson and the FDR Home, Presidential Library &
Museum are named among must-see spots. fodors.com.
month the Art Institute of Chicago will honor 99-year-old renowned
artist and printmaker Eldzier Cortor with the 2015 Legends and
Legacy Award. This honor is bestowed to living African American
artists who, through their lifelong accomplishments and exceptional
career in the visual arts, have influenced the next generation of
completion of a full-scale reinstallation focusing on Auguste
Rodin’s remarkable achievements as a portraitist, The Rodin Museum
in Philadelphia, PA, will reopen on Feb. 7. The Museum holds one of
the largest collections of works by the French sculptor and will
bring together a group of works that embody the artist’s realist
spirit, offering a broader understanding of his contribution to the
formation of modern art.
reports from the NEA reveal new findings about the impact of arts
and cultural industries on GDP (gross domestic product). With data
from 2012, the new information will help arts providers and others
more effectively understand and develop strategies to engage
individuals and communities in the arts. See http://arts.gov/news/2015/surprising-findings-three-new-nea-reports-arts.
Interestingly, exposure to the arts in childhood turns out to be a
stronger predictor of adult art participation than education,
gender, age or income.
Painting on Loan—For
the first time in its history, the MFA-Boston will exhibit a
painting by Gustav Klimt. Adam and Eve (1917-18) is on loan from
the Belvedere Museum in Vienna thru April 27 as part of the Visiting
Egon Schiele: Portraits,
Neue Galerie, NYC, is the first exhibition at an American museum to
focus exclusively on portraits in the masterful Austrian artist’s
work. Extended thru April 20.
Represent: 200 Years of African
Philadelphia Museum of Art, includes approximately 75 works by more
than 50 artists, including Jacob Lawrence, Martin Puryear and Carrie
Mae Weems, and places a strong emphasis on the modern era. Thru
Pete Seeger and Friends—The
Art of Ted Berkowitz, is on display in the Ottinger Room, Croton
Free Library, Croton-on-Hudson, NY, thru Feb. 28.
Guggenheim Museum, NYC, opens on Feb. 6—May 3. Installed along the
spiral ramps of the museum according to a framework of 12 sections,
or “chapters,” devised by the late artist, the exhibition features
work from 1963-2013 and includes every category of On Kawara’s
Greenscapes: Of/In/From the Garden,
Clay Art Center, Port Chester, NY, is an exhibit of functional and
sculptural objects by over 60 artists that highlights the
relationship between ceramics and the garden. Thru March 14.
On-Line International Spring 2015, National Oil & Acrylic Painters’
to all national and international living artists 18 years or older
working in oil or acrylic mediums. 2-D works must have been
painted in the past three years. Deadline: March 30.
Intelligent Objects: Empathetic and Smart Art,
National Juried Exhibition—Creative
Arts Workshop, New Haven, CT, May 1-June 5. This is an open call
for those artworks that act as independent agents and explore the
cross-section of analog and digital media. Deadline: March 1.
National Juried Art Shows,
Brooklyn (NY) Waterfront Artists Coalition. Recycle
seeks to exhibit sophisticated 2- and 3-D art created in the re-use
genre that demonstrates the importance of conserving our limited
natural resources. Early Bird Deadline is March 18; Final
Deadline is March 31. Wide Open 6 is open to all
traditional and non-traditional 2D and 3D media and looks to explore
the idea of “wide open” in all the hidden niches of our collective
psyche. Deadlines: Early Bird, March 11; Final Deadline is
March 24. Both are open to all residents of the U.S. and its
Territories 18 and older.
National Medal of Arts—Nominations
will close on Feb. 27 for the National Medal of Arts. Submit your
nomination for any U.S. citizen or group who “are deserving of
special recognition by reason of their outstanding contributions to
the excellence, growth, support and availability of the arts in the
United States.” arts.gov/honors/medals/fact-sheet.
is now open for new and exciting classes, workshops, artist-led
immersions and more. http://www.moma.org/.
Komic Kreators of the Mid-Hudson Valley.
Exhibition: Feb. 14-March 7. Preview Party,
Feb. 13, 6-8 p.m., meet the artists, costumes encouraged, Fee;
Expo, Feb. 14, 10 a.m.—4 p.m., Free; The Genesis of a Comic
Image/Strip by noted comic artist Charles Barnett III, Feb. 21,
1-3 p.m., Fee. Arts Mid-Hudson, Poughkeepsie, NY.
The Armory Show 2015,
NYC, March 5-8. Pier 92-Modern will represent art/artists from the
20th C., while Pier 94-Contemporary is dedicated to leading
international galleries presenting new art by living artists.
Lawrence Abu Hamdan, based between Beirut and London, is the
Commissioned Artist for the 2015 fair. www.thearmoryshow.com.
Brilliant Winter Landscape Walks,
Storm King Art Center, New Windsor, NY—Members-only
walks explore the sculpture and grounds by guided tour or on your
own; afterwards enjoy hot cider and donuts and receive a special
discount in the Museum Store. Feb. 21 and March 7, 2-4 p.m.
Coming Soon: Botticelli to Braque: Masterpieces
from the National Galleries of Scotland
March 7–May 31, 2015 |
de Young | Herbst Exhibition Galleries
See paintings by many of the greatest artists from
the Renaissance to the 20th century—including El
Greco, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Degas, Monet, Gauguin,
and Picasso—in an exclusive West Coast
presentation of 55 works from the National
Galleries of Scotland, one of the world's premier
art collections. Also featured are British artists
Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough, icon
of the Scottish school Sir Henry Raeburn,
and Americans Frederic Edwin Church and John
This rare presentation continues the Fine Arts
Museums’ tradition of presenting works from
acclaimed museums around the world.
See the exhibition before it opens to the public,
and enjoy free admission to all special
exhibitions as a FAMSF Member. Join
He carried a pistol. She carried a flask. He romanticized
Detroit. She rejected it. But they shared a belief in
communism, a thirst for tequila and a passion for each
other. Discover how they left their mark on Detroit. And
how Detroit left its mark on their art.
Purchase tickets today to guarantee entrance to the
highly anticipated exhibition Diego Rivera & Frida
Kahlo in Detroit, opening March 15th at the Detroit
Institute of Arts.
Tickets for this special exhibition are timed and limited.
Advance purchase is strongly recommended, especially on
weekends when most tickets sell out well in advance. If
you purchase tickets online, avoid waiting in line by
printing your tickets from home and bringing them with
Adults: Tues. - Fri., $14 / Sat. - Sun., $19
Youth (Ages 6-17): Tues. - Fri., $8 / Sat. - Sun., $9
Groups (15+): Tues. - Fri., $12 / Sat. - Sun., $16 (per
Purchase online at
Or by calling 313.833.4005 Monday - Sunday, 9 a.m. to 5
Note: DIA Members can reserve complimentary tickets to the
Learn More About Membership
Wet-in-Wet and Drybrush Watercolor Techniques
Wet, wonderful watercolor! The colors are
dramatic; the methods of creating a watercolor are many. All types
of paint applications can be used, but there are two that seem to be
associated with watercolor more than others. Wet-in-wet and
drybrush applications are very important as well as fundamental to many
watercolorists’ repertories of techniques.
Wet-in-wet is a true description of the
method and the technique of application. Wet paper is flooded with
rich, fluid color that can be either thick and creamy or very light and
barely tinted. The resulting tones, once dry, vary greatly; and because
of the lack of control or predictability and the diversity, wet-in-wet
is considered one of the most important watercolor techniques.
The amount of water that is soaked into or
floating on the surface of the watercolor paper greatly affects the
results. Well soaked paper that has been allowed to set for a
while is less watery and will result in a more defined, yet slightly
softened image. Very wet paper, flooded and soaked with water,
will allow the pigments to stream and flow.
Soaking a large sheet of watercolor paper
can present a challenge. One method is to soak the paper in a
bathtub. The depth, temperature and length of soak are easy to
control as is the quality of water. It should be stated that
minerals in some water might have long-term effects on the paper and
paints used in watercolor. Where minerals and cleanliness
really come into play is when an artist is in the field or painting in a
new area where the quality of water is unknown. If you plan to do
plein air work in watercolor, presoak in the water at your home.
It is much cleaner than any you might have access to out in a remote
area. And your technique will be challenged if things are greatly
different from that to which you are accustomed. So play it safe
and soak ahead of time. Also carry ample working water so you control
that quality, too.
Transport your dampened paper by slightly
rolling it, wrapping it in a clean plastic trash bag and slipping it
into an oversized mailing tube. As soon as you reach your
destination, remove the paper so that it will relax prior to tacking or
taping onto your work board.
Another element in the mix is the texture
and thickness of the paper used. If very heavy, pre-soaked but
somewhat drier paper is used, the results will have more edge and less
fluidity. Overly damp papers, both thick and thin, will not retain
detail. Thin paper tends to buckle and allow the pigments to pool.
Finding the right paper for your style is part of the fun and
experimentation of watercolor. Changing paper weight will often
alter your plan of application, too.
Brushes used can be almost any, but artists
seem to have special wash brushes that they prefer. This brush
might contain a thick tuft of hair, might hold lots of diluted pigment
and be able to cover lots of paper is just a few strokes. Marine
boar bristle brushes offer a good value and can hold lots of fluid.
Hake brushes do the same and can be used for other application methods
Wet-in-wet methods lend themselves to
topical textural additions as they set up and begin to dry. For
instance, when dropped into fluid areas, rock salt will pull the pigment
into star or crystal figurations. Resists such as oil and
sometimes common rubbing alcohol can be dropped into pools of color to
create unique patterns and tones. None of these are possible with
other methods of paint application.
If you like to add linear details to your
work, working wet-in-wet will give you an opportunity to do so.
When the wet areas have begun to dry but still have moisture, you can
use a blunt instrument (pointed paint brush handle is ideal) to scribe
lines through the damp areas. These lines will take on a much
darker tone than the painted areas they lie in and will give you a
chance to add an infinite sketchy style to your works.
Drybrush is the closest thing to a
wet-in-wet opposite that is possible. Dry paper is contacted with
non-watery brushes full of rich pigment. The resulting painted
lines and shapes are rigid and well defined. There is no fluidity
to the images created with drybrush. It is a method of application
that is added over other methods for sharp detail and definition.
Textures, roughness and highlights are some of the ways drybrush is used
to accent a nearly finished work.
Drybrush is a great additive technique.
Whether you want to increase the depth of a shadow or use an opaque
white tone to add sharp highlight, drybrush is a good way to do it.
Remember, your brush will be charged with a paint that is far less fluid
than ordinary watercolor application, so the paint will sit upon the
surface rather than react as a wash. The amount of paint and the
degree of dryness will determine the crispness of the look you achieve.
By combining drybrush over completed
wet-in-wet areas you will see other ways in which they can help you
achieve dramatic results. Slightly damp areas respond differently
than those that are totally dry. Salted areas respond differently
when scribed than unsalted, smooth, wet areas. Dragging drybrush
over scribed areas is different from dragging it over dry smooth areas.
New discoveries are limited only by your time and energy.
With experimentation in wet-in-wet and
drybrush work, many new and exciting opportunities will arise.
Both methods have huge potential in watercolor work and will give you
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Eclipse Airbrush, Iwata Airbrush, Medea Textile Colours, Medea Com-Art Colours,
Ampersand Art Supply, Artool, General Pencil Co., Silentaire Technology,
American Art Clay Co., Graphic Chemical & Ink, Grumbacher, Schmincke,
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ART in Beacon NY
THE ARTIST’S MARKETPLACE
Robert Paschal, MFA
Basic Airbrush Workshop—Beacon,
NY March 10 2015
6-9 p.m. Learn the fundamentals of airbrush technique in a concise 3-hour
hands-on class, designed for the novice who wishes to paint fine art,
crafts, signs, customized autos/bikes/snowboards and myriad other objects.
Seating is limited. All equipment/materials are provided. 845.831.1043;
Camp Cōkaboodie in the Adirondacks
Jerry Savarie Road (off Big Brook Road) Indian Lake, NY
are located on Lake Abanakee with beautiful views and sunsets!
Join an adult
art history class
Engage with Carnegie Museum of Art's collection and
exhibitions through the museum's art history classes.
Programmed by the museum's education department, these
classes offer terrific opportunities to investigate
individual works or periods in greater depth, and allow
visitors to connect with the art currently on view in our
Art Through the Ages: An Art History Survey
Gain a new appreciation for the history of art from
ancient to contemporary times, with a focus on Carnegie
Museum of Art’s world-class collection. Become
acquainted with a range of artists in ways that you
never before considered, through captivating gallery
walks, provocative lectures, readings, and take-home
exercises. This 14-session class meets every Thursday
between February 19–May 21, or every Friday between
February 20–May 22.
|February 19–May 21
$200 ($180 CMP Members)
|February 20–May 22
10:15 a.m.–12:15 p.m.
$200 ($180 CMP Members)
Across the Atlantic:
The Beginnings of American Art
With art historian Isaac King as your guide, discover
the origins of American art through the work of Benjamin
West, Gilbert Stuart, John Trumbull, and Rembrandt Peale
in this four-session class.
February 25–March 18
10:15 a.m.–12:15 p.m.
$80 ($64 CMP Members)
Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Fin-de-siècle Paris
CMOA’s rich collection of Impressionist and
Neo-Impressionist paintings, including works by Cezanne,
Cassatt, Renoir, Monet, and Signac, along with the
Visiting Van Gogh: Basket of Apples, serve as
the foundation for this four-session class.
10:15 a.m.–12:15 p.m.
$80 ($64 CMP Members)
Questions? Email Lucy
Stewart, Associate Curator of Education, Adult Programs,
or call us at 412.622.3288.
Airbrush History Trivia
—Abner Peeler, of Webster City, IA, invented the
airbrush in 1878. Imagine, over 130 years ago! Abner, a
professional inventor who tinkered with things such as screw
machines, bicycles and typewriters, developed this painting
tool—originally called a “paint distributor”—specifically for
photographic retouching. The paint distributor, which was similar
to today’s oscillating internal-mix airbrush, had a wooden handle
with metal parts and sold for the incredible price of $10. The
first such airbrush was sold to S. M. Thomas, and we know that the
first painting completed with this paint distributor was a
self-portrait of Peeler himself done by his wife on an enlarged
The painter Man Ray (1890-1977) is probably the
first fine artist to exhibit paintings done exclusively with the
airbrush. Ray, considered the only American Dadaist, learned to use
the airbrush while working in an ad agency in New York City between
1917 and 1919. His fine art airbrush renderings were shown in NYC
galleries and called “aerographs.?nbsp; Looking at them with today’s
standards of what we consider airbrush painting, these works of art
would be considered simplistic—but at that time, totally new.
They consisted of images developed by airbrushing around found
objects, such as paper cutouts, tools and paper clips that were used
simply as stencils. Man Ray worked flat on a table, allowing
gravity to hold the stencils in place, and sprayed around them with
black ink. He repeated these images in both opaque and
transparent ink and the end products lent themselves to the look of
.It is said that Man Ray was primarily interested in
producing paintings with a smooth machine-like finish. And because
the ink was airbrushed onto the surface, there were no brush strokes
in the artwork, which imparted an industrial appearance. An
excellent collection of his works is held by and exhibited at The
Art Institute of Chicago; and even viewed today, their simplicity is
Pablo Ruiz Picasso 1881 - 1972
There is much that could be written about Pablo
Picasso, arguably the greatest artist of the 20th
century. The enormous volume of work he completed stands without
question as legend. His influence on several generations of artists
and his recognition as the founder of many art periods, most
famously that of cubism, attests to his immersion in creativity. For
80 years of the 91 he lived, he devoted himself to an artistic
production that contributed to development of modern art of the 20th
century. And, all the while, Picasso was a man who loved women.
During his life he had affairs, lived with or married over six women
and fathered four children. He abhorred being alone when he was not
Aside from the tumultuous personal life, Picasso was
devoted to his art. During his early years he abandoned most of the
classical training given him by his father and first instructor for
his own interpretation of the world around him. Five “periods?are
recognized as brought to life by Picasso.
Most have heard of his Blue Period that lasted from
1901 to 1904 in which somber, blue tinted paintings prevailed. These
were influenced by the loss of a friend. Images of this period
include depictions of acrobats, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
His Rose Period (1905 to 1907) brought out paintings
with overall tones of orange and pink, many involving images of
harlequins. During this period he was seriously romantically
involved and the warmth of the relationship is seen in his palette
Soon after the Rose Period came an African Period
(1907 to 1909) that was influenced by artifacts from his personal
collection. Many paintings of this period repeat the use of two
Cubism, the style for which Picasso is most famous,
came into being when he and his friend and painter Braque challenged
each other to dissect and “analyze?objects, then paint them in
terms of their shapes. Color played a large part in this period of
work ?monochromatic browns and shadow tones prevailed as a common
thread. Each artist developed the style in his own way and each had
His Cubist Period ran from 1909 to 1919, and
included the use of collage as a fine art form. Heretofore, no
artist had used collage and cut paper to convey images. Imagine art
Picasso had many artist friends and some rivals.
Matisse was one of the “gentle?rivalries experienced in Picasso’s
lifetime. Both were strong, talented and seemed to challenge one
another. A recent collection of works by both artists reveals they
had a lot in common, although their styles were personal and not
derivative. The bold, outlined and highly decorative nature of both
artists' works is without question.
Historically, a lot happened during the 90+ years
Picasso lived, but he remained detached from any personal
commitment. He was a proclaimed pacifist, refusing to fight for any
side in the Spanish American War, World War I or World War II. If
was thought by many of his contemporaries that his dislike of war
and his unwillingness to fight was less political and more
cowardice. Being Spanish but living in France during these
conflicts, he escaped involvement and thus proclaimed and solidified
his pacifistic standing. He did, however, remain a member of the
Communist Party until his death.
At the time of his death, Picasso had enjoyed wide
acceptance as the greatest artist of his time. Many of his works
were recognized within his lifetime. Some include The Old
Guitarist from Picasso’s Blue Period, on display at the Museum
of Modern Art; Las Meninas Series, on display at the Picasso
Museum in Barcelona, Spain; and Guernica, in Madrid, Spain.
“My mother said to me, ‘If you are a soldier, you
will become a general. If you are a monk, you will become the Pope.?
Instead, I was a painter, and became Picasso.?- Pablo Ruiz
Picasso. Last words: “Drink to me.?/td>
Painting How To
Painting on a Grand Scale
When artists gravitate towards large scale works,
they face some interesting challenges along with the actual creative
process. How art is created ?on a grand scale ?is different from
small artworks. Every aspect of the act of mural painting and other
large scale artwork has considerations that make it fun and
stimulating - well worth those deliberations.
From the very ground onto which the artist places
sketch lines, brushes of paint and blended colors, large scale
nudges the artist into new realms of production. In order to paint
large scale, the preferred ground ?canvas of some sort ?must be
acquired in an appropriate size. The content of the canvas and its
weight are both vital considerations when the painted surface is
Widths/lengths and fiber content of canvas-type
grounds vary greatly, but there are sizes as large as 12 feet wide.
More commonly, large scale works are completed on canvas of 60? 72?
or 84?widths. Roll length purchases are necessary and can vary by
manufacturer ?from 6 feet to 25 yards.
But, after width and length, the fiber content may
be the single most important element of the painting. As you would
expect, there is cotton fiber in a variety of weights, but there is
also linen, jute, cotton/linen blends polyester (all synthetic) and
cotton/poly blends and all can be found primed and unprimed. The
weight and texture of the canvas will have an important bearing on
the finished artwork, and most artists match their style with the
texture and surface of their ground. Choices abound!
Rather than traditionally sized tubes of paint, most
muralists/large scale painters use jars, tubs ?even gallons of
artists?colors. Most manufacturers of paint offer a wide selection
in larger quantities. Selection of textures in those containers is
also sometimes available. Thicker paint means more pigment for
application and working into large spaces.
tools include brushes for sure, but those used are much larger in
size. Consider when doing any work—if the scale were huge, you would
want to use larger brushes. And, additionally, rollers (like those
used for wall painting) and trowels are also used in larger scale
works ?tools that would be difficult to use small scale become a
necessity for bigger works. Trowels, scrapers, and tools not often
associated with “painterly?applications are used by muralists and
accomplish the job they want. Painting pads and hand “mops?for
decorative surfacing of walls can come in very handy on larger scale
Easels play a big part in big works. Studio easels
in both wood and metal often accept works as large as 5-8 feet tall.
They help hold the work at the proper level ?that at which it will
be viewed ?so the artist is always aware of the scope, perspective
and dynamics of his/her work. Some artists who do large scale work
cover a wall with plywood and then staple or tack their canvas to
that surface at the proper level for work and viewing. Easels and
wall attachments ?whatever they might be ?help artists by allowing
them to step back and take in the “big picture.?For large stretched
canvas, wall mounted easels are great. They can accommodate works of
around 100 inches in height. They are sturdy, help hold the
stretched canvas firmly and adjust to all points up to around 100
And lastly some artists employ the use of airbrush
to do a lot of the design layout and fill-in on large works.
Texturing with an airbrush can be accomplished by painting through
screening, metal mesh, decorative pierced metal sheeting and many
more items. Airbrush gives the type of color gradation almost
impossible to achieve in any other way. Mists of tone-on-tone and
the softness achieved is a huge asset to some muralists.
In review, large scale artworks bring new thought
processes to ponder and hurdles to overcome. But, isn’t that what
contributes to making art so enjoyable and rewarding—to accept the
intellectual stimulation of such works and to succeed.
Printmaking Techniques & Materials
Printmaking is an enjoyable expression and is
accompanied by some terms that often seem a bit difficult to
understand. So, here some of the common terms and techniques will be
explained. The scope of printmaking is huge and can be enjoyed by
nearly any age group. Some of the materials used are found around
the home, while others must be purchased from art material
Graphic Chemical & Ink Co.
No matter the level of your involvement with
printmaking, it is sure to be exciting. In some techniques,
duplication of results is nearly impossible, which seems a bit
contradictory to the basic term: printmaking. Let’s take, for our
first example, the most direct and simple of prints…monoprints.
A monoprint (mono meaning one) is created by
applying ink or paint to a hard flat surface (plate), pressing paper
against the plate and lifting the paper from the plate. The
resulting print is one-of-a-kind, since ink or paint would be nearly
impossible to set in the same place time after time. Simple doesn’t
mean uninteresting, and this is a great technique for any artist.
Collagraph, a very simple form of
printmaking, is a print created from a plate (Masonite, mat board,
chip board, etc.) that has natural and/or found objects with texture
glued to it. The surface of the plate is sealed and, when dry, is
inked on the textured plate, excess removed and a paper placed on
top. Downward pressure (using a press or hand roller) presses the
paper and ink together and the images are transferred (in reverse)
to the paper. Again, the simplicity of collagraph prints makes them
easy for everyone to try. Many, but not unlimited, prints can be
made from a master collagraph plate.
Wood block (woodcut) printing advances in
difficulty because the artist uses special gouges and carving tools
to create a dimensional image in a wood block. The high surfaces of
the wood block are inked, paper is pressed against the inked areas
and the resulting image is a woodblock print. Surfaces other than
wood can be used; linoleum, wax, and rubber are a few that are a bit
easier to carve. Early wood block designs were used for fabric
embellishment and those blocks endure as collectables.
Reduction prints are created with care by
print artists who desire more color and texture in their work. Each
color is printed individually on the ever-decreasing wood block.
Working from back to front colorwise, the artist reduces the wood
block with every color, printing that part of the plate that will
reflect a specific color, and then removing more mass to print the
next color. When finished, the only areas that remain on the block
are those representing the very last color.
Drypoint etching is more involved because it
starts with a metal plate. The plate is scribed (scratched) by the
artist to record a subject. Ink is rubbed into the slight toothy
grooves created by the scribing. Paper is then put on the plate,
pressed and the resulting print is pulled away from the plate. For
all but the tiniest of printed images, a printing press is
invaluable in the process. Strong definition and evenness is
difficult with hand pressing methods. Many prints can be made from
the original plate. Etching can be taken yet another step by using
acid to enlarge and remove areas of the metal surface.
Intaglio prints are made from a metal base
into which designs have been created. This is often done with harsh
chemicals, the metal dissolving where there are scribed or etched
lines that have been made through a protective covering. Because of
the chemical contact (acids), this level of printmaking is
considered advanced and should be done under supervision and
instruction. Many prints can be made from the original plate. Ink is
rubbed into the low areas, paper is pressed to the surface and a
print is created.
following is a simple explanation of some terms associated with
brayer - a hard rubber roller on a handle
used to transfer ink to the plate.
plate ?a surface on which an image is
formed, usually metal.
baren - a circular padded tool used to rub
against the back of paper to obtain an image from a master.
hard ground -an acid-resistant material
applied to an etching plate through which you scribe to create a
mordant - an acid or other corrosive
substance used to “bite?into a metal plate to create an image on
gouge ?a V- or U-shaped tool for cutting a
wood or linoleum block.